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Offline LostArrow

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Brining Poultry
« Reply #-1 on: November 08, 2014, 12:47:47 PM »
I'm a firm believer in brineing low fat meats. Turkey which is mainly breast benefits greatly!
This material I've posted 2 years ago but we're getting close to Thanksgiving.


* Some of this may have been covered before, and several different members have posted aspects of this information. This is an attempt to collate the information*

Cures are NOT required in brines. I always used them early in my brining trials because that is what the recipe called for. But in doing a lot of research, it’s not required. It is a cure and as such, is typically used in places where you’re worried about the Food Safety DANGER ZONE of 40°F to 140°F.  You don’t have to have the cure if you’re sure of your temperatures. Keep it below 40°F. Pickling Salt will work. Don’t use other salts than Kosher (keep reading, there is more info below).  You can find it, believe me, it’s in every store.

Question: What is the cook's reason to brine, anyway?

Answer:   See the section on Brining Background and you’ll understand why it is something you should try.

Question: How long to brine and is there too long?  Can you brine too long? Does the weight of the bird matter?

Answer:   See the brine time section for recommended times. As far as the bird just follow the directions in the basic brine times and adjust if your bird is bigger. You can brine too long, so follow the recommended times, or less, never add more time.

Question:  Does the strength of the brine matter (dilution factor)?

Answer:   Yes, if you don’t have a high enough solution of salt to liquid, you’re just soaking. I haven’t seen a specified percentage, but the minimum I usually see is 3/4 cup of Kosher salt to 1 gal or water.  The scientist out there can tell us if that’s 20% solution or not.

Question:  Can you brine a frozen bird?

Answer:   No. The brine and osmosis won’t be able to work on a frozen product and if you let the bird since in a salty solution longer than recommended, you’ll have a less than good quality bird – mushy and over-seasoned.

Question:  Should I use a rub if I brined my bird?

Answer:   You don’t have too. It will depend on the flavorings of the brine. A lot of times I do, so that the outside gets a nice flavor from the rub and the insides gets more flavors from the brine.

Question:  How scared should I be brining & cooking a bird for a party of 15 if I've never brined before? In other words, how hard is it? And, is it easy to screw up?

Answer:   I’ve seen you cook and you should be real scared. No, really.  Okay, I’m teasing. I always recommend practicing before any large party. You may not like the particular herbs/seasonings in a particular rub. Get to know the effects and flavors of brining before your party. Remember the first time you smoked a brisket – would you feed that to your friends? Practice, but don’t tell them when you do it and see if they notice – they will.

Question:  Can you brine and inject?

Answer:   You don’t need to, if you’re going to inject the brine.  Osmosis works for you – so you don’t have to. Now, if you want to inject your own flavorings after the brine, feel free.

Question: Should you pay attention to lowering the salt in your rub, if you use a traditional salt brine?

Answer:   Good Question. Many cooks don’t realize how much salt is in everything they’re using. By using a brine, you’re adding more. As I always recommend, you’ll have to be the judge, so if you’re worried about being too “salty”, cut back the salt somewhere. Most of my rub recipes have little to no salt in them for this reason, so I can add salt as needed.

Question: Food nutritionists say honey breaks down at 160ºF,so should you wait till after you boil the brine and it cools some to add the honey?

Answer:  I’m not a food nutritionist, but I haven’t notice a lack of honey taste in my Honey Brine because I put the honey in when it was too hot. I mix my brines by putting the salts and sugars into solution and bring it to a rolling boil. Then I take it off the heat and add the honey. If you want, wait until you solution cools below 160ºF before adding your honey.

Question:  Can the brine be used for a second time for the same food type?

Answer:   Food Safety 101 – Don’t every reuse a brine once it’s had food in it.  I’m sure the food scientists out there can tell us how and when and why you might be able to, but I don’t recommend doing it. The whole issue is cross-contamination, do you want to get food poisoning? Nope, not me. If you feel you can accomplish food safety and reuse a brine, it’s all up to you.

Question: Instead of water, can I use something else, like Coca-Cola, Orange Juice, Apple Juice, Beer, Etc?         

Answer:   Trick question, but a good one. Yes you can substitute other liquids for the water that is the base for a brine – BUT – and this is a big but, don’t make the solution acidic. Remember that a brine uses osmosis and marinades use acid.  If you make your solution acidic (like using a orange/citrus juice) you’ll actually get a mushy exterior on the meat. The reason is the length of time your brine works vs. the length of time for a marinade. You can use a little acid, but if you add too much, watch out for the effect that acid has on your meat.  If you do add acid, reduce your brining time accordingly.

Question: My refrigerator isn’t big enough to hold the brine in a big bucket, what do I do?

Answer:   Get another refrigerator! (Sorry, bad humor). Be creative, but remember two things: temperature and air are your enemies. Keep the temperature below 40Fº and the meat completely covered by brine. Once the solution is made, you can break it up into smaller quantities. For example, take a zip lock back, put 4 to 6 chicken breast in there and add brine to cover, close it after squeezing out the air and you’ll do fine.  For turkey, I’ve see people add the brine to a larger garbage bag (clean one of course) add the turkey, seal it. Then place this inside a larger bag, incase the first one leaks.  Just keep temperature and air in mind.

Question: Can I brine pork?

Answer:   Since the worm that causes Trichinosis is no longer present in American pork, it is now safe enough that it doesn't have to be cooked well done. However, Jim McKinney, chef-owner of Club Grotto in Louisville, KY, couldn't convince his customers of that. "If they see pink in a pork chop, they think they're going to get sick," he says. By brining his 12-ounce pork chop for 24 hours in a mixture of kosher salt, brown sugar, fresh rosemary and juniper berries, some of the blood is drawn out and McKinney can cook it to just 140ºF degrees without hearing any complaints. "And the flavor it packs is incredible," he says. His brine is 28 percent salt and 10 percent brown sugar3.

Chapter 3 – Basic Times for Brines

How Long to Brine?
It all depends (don’t you love that answer)? The size of the item your brining, the relative strength of the brine and your individual preferences will all make a difference. I highly recommend you experiment, keep good notes and you’ll determine your own answer. Before you experiment, read the Questions and Answers chapter for some ideas and concerns about changing times and solutions.

 These are “sample” times.  Feel free to adjust –SLIGHTY- but remember:

If you’re worried about your first brine, go with a time in the middle of the range.  If that was too salty, try lowering your time.  After than, you can adjust your solution if you still think it’s too salty



Brine Time

Whole Chicken (4-5 Pounds):  8 to 12 hours

Chicken Parts:  1 1/2 hours

Chicken Breasts: 1 hour

Whole Turkey:  24 - 48 hours

Turkey Breast:  5 - 10 hours

Cornish game hens:  2 hours

Shrimp:  30 minutes

Pork chops:  12 - 24 hours

Pork Tenderloin (whole):  12 - 24 hours

 

Chapter 4 – Brining Recipes
Preparation:
If you’re new to brining, read all the information in the Q&A section for some of the common mistakes and concerns.

To prepare your solution, there are two methods.  Remember that whatever your mixing needs to be thoroughly into solution before using.

Method 1: Cold. Dissolve salt in a cold or room temperature water, add other ingredients and mix thoroughly. All solution to set overnight. Then use.

Method 2: Heated. Mix salt, sugar and water in a pot and bring to a low/rolling boil.  Take off the heat and add other flavorings. Let cool.

When brining, always use stainless steel, glass or food-grade plastic containers.

Totally submerge in solution and store in a refrigerator for the recommended time.


As a general starting point, take one gallon of water and add 3/4 cup (preferable - but you can use up to a cup) of salt (Kosher is best), 1/2 cup of sugar and then the rest is up to you. Sliced onions are nice, a few cloves of crushed garlic add a nice flavor and then there's the spices and herbs.

Simple Brine I:
½ cup Kosher salt
½ cup sugar
1 gallon water
Simple Brine II:
3/4 cup Kosher salt
3/4 cup brown sugar
1 gallon water
1/4 cup coarse black pepper


Smokin’ Okie’s Holiday Turkey Brine:
1 gallon water
1 cup coarse Kosher salt
3/4 cup soy sauce
1/2 cup white sugar
1/2 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup honey
1/2 cup apple cider vinegar
4 tablespoons black pepper
3 - 4 tablespoons chopped garlic
1 teaspoon Allspice
1 oz. Morton’s Tenderquick (optional)
Measurements “How much is an Ounce?”

2 tablespoons = ounce
6 teaspoons = ounce

Heat water/salt/sugars to rolling boil. Take off burner, add other ingredients. Allow mixture to cool before placing meat into solution.

Place 10 - 12 lb. turkey in non-reactive container and cover with brine. Refrigerate for minimum of 24 hours, preferably 48 hours.

Load smoker’s wood box with 4 oz. hickory wood.

Remove turkey from the refrigerator and discard brine. Rinse turkey three times, pat dry and lightly rub skin with mayonnaise. Apply light coating of Cookshack Spicy Chicken Rub. Place turkey in smoker and smoke cook at 200ºF for one hour per lb.  I like cherry or apple wood for my turkey. Smoke until internal temperature of breast reaches 160ºF to 165ºF. Remove from smoker and allow to sit for 30 minutes before slicing.

Note:  About the “optional” Tenderquick.  If you smoke a turkey at temperatures of 180º to 225º F., you might want to consider using the Tenderquick.  The turkey will be spending a lot of time in the DANGER ZONE of 40ºF to 140ºF, so just be aware of this.  If in doubt, use the Tenderquick.   

Shake’s Honey Brine & Fried turkey
1/2 gallon will do 2 turkeys; 2 oz each leg, 2 oz each thigh, 4 oz each breast.
1 gallon water
1 cup pickling salt
1 oz tender quick (2 tbsp)
1 cup honey
3 bay leaves
1/4 tsp ground cloves
1/2 tsp pickle spice


Smokin Okie’s Original Brine
1 gallon water
1 cup kosher salt
1 ounce Tenderquick
1 cup honey
3 bay leaves
1/4 teaspoon ground cloves
1/2 teaspoon pickling spices


Simple Brine III:
1 cup Kosher salt
1/2 cup molasses
1/2 cup maple syrup
1/2 cup lemon juice
1/4 cup cracked black pepper
1/4 cup crushed red peppers
2 tablespoons minced garlic


Simple Pork Brine:
1 gallon Water
1/2  cup coarse kosher salt
1/2 cup white sugar
3 bay leaves
1 whole onion, cut-up
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Offline Old Dave

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Offline CDN Smoker

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #1 on: November 08, 2014, 03:09:56 PM »
Ton of information here, Thank You

Big Bookmarked ;D
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Offline Las Vegan Cajun

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #2 on: November 08, 2014, 03:12:23 PM »
Great info, thanks for posting.  ;)

If the fridge ain't big enough how about brining in an ice chest with a few bags of ice covering the meat?
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Offline teesquare

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #3 on: November 08, 2014, 03:34:01 PM »
Great info, thanks for posting.  ;)

If the fridge ain't big enough how about brining in an ice chest with a few bags of ice covering the meat?

I like to place 2 bags ( one inside the other ) in a five gallon bucket. Then put the turkey in the bag - add the chilled brine. Twist the air out of the bag and tie it shut. Then pile on ice, and place bucket in cooler, filled with ice surrounding the bucket.
Last year I bought an Igloo water cooler like this one:  http://www.homelectrical.com/igloo-5-gallon-industrial-cooler.igl-451.1.html?utm_source=Nextag&utm_medium=CSE&utm_campaign=CSE

It works great. Just load the ice on top of the closed bag, and put the lid on the cooler. It is important to get all of the air out of the bag so that the turkey stays submerged in brine.

T
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Offline RAD

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #4 on: November 08, 2014, 03:59:00 PM »
Thanks for posting. You guys are making this holiday season makings nice and easy.
Love to cook and eat

Offline HighOnSmoke

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #5 on: November 08, 2014, 06:08:45 PM »
Definitely a big thanks for posting! Bookmarked!
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Offline CaptJack

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #6 on: November 08, 2014, 07:39:53 PM »
I put all my dry spices in my spice ginder - to dust, and mixed with the salt and the sugar


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Offline teesquare

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #7 on: November 08, 2014, 07:44:09 PM »
I like those Jack....but they are a little on the small side. I like a larger volume bag for more brine and complete immersion. May not be important, it is just how I like to do it.
Anyone know of larger "food safe" plastic bags? I have used the white kitchen size garbage bags, and think they are o.k. ( not the perfumed bags ) but would feel better with a purpose built one.
BBQ is neither verb or noun. It is an experience.
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Offline CaptJack

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #8 on: November 08, 2014, 07:47:46 PM »
T that's a 12# bird in a bag for a 24#er
I doubled up the neck of the bag to take up the slack

btw- the bird is breast down in the bag
why I didn't cover it in liquid, dilute the brine
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Offline teesquare

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #9 on: November 08, 2014, 07:56:46 PM »
T that's a 12# bird in a bag for a 24#er
I doubled up the neck of the bag to take up the slack

btw- the bird is breast down in the bag
why I didn't cover it in liquid, dilute the brine

Got it! Well - that ought to be big enough for me! I will look those up. Thanks Jack!
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Offline TentHunteR

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #10 on: November 08, 2014, 08:01:45 PM »
Good info L.A.!


A tip about Kosher salt:

Quote from: LostArrow
Don’t use other salts than Kosher...  You can find it, believe me, it’s in every store.

For those who don't know, there is a better type of "Kosher" salt for brining. 


Pickling salt:

1) It's made for brining/pickling; it's sized to dissolve easily and measure more consistently.

2) It's less expensive than regular Kosher salt.

3) It IS a certified Kosher salt!  No additives, anti-caking agents, etc. :)
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Offline Ka Honu

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #11 on: November 08, 2014, 08:27:00 PM »
... It IS a certified Kosher salt!  No additives, anti-caking agents, etc.

Cliff -

You're absolutely correct (as most always) but you're leaving room for confusion (never a good thing around tee, dee, or me).

What we usually refer to as "kosher salt" is actually "koshering salt" because the crystal shape (flake or hollow pyramid) and size were better than other styles for absorbing blood in preparing kosher meat.

"Kosher-certified salt," however, is any salt that has been certified as usable in preparing kosher food. In theory, it can have any crystal shape or size as long as it is produced and handled according to kosher dietary requirements.

I'm guessing that on this forum (with it's preference for pork), that certification is not much of an issue.
Everyone is entitled to my opinion

Offline teesquare

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #12 on: November 08, 2014, 08:36:32 PM »
... It IS a certified Kosher salt!  No additives, anti-caking agents, etc.

Cliff -

You're absolutely correct (as most always) but you're leaving room for confusion (never a good thing around tee, dee, or me).

What we usually refer to as "kosher salt" is actually "koshering salt" because the crystal shape (flake or hollow pyramid) and size were better than other styles for absorbing blood in preparing kosher meat.

"Kosher-certified salt," however, is any salt that has been certified as usable in preparing kosher food. In theory, it can have any crystal shape or size as long as it is produced and handled according to kosher dietary requirements.

I'm guessing that on this forum (with it's preference for pork), that certification is not much of an issue.


Mazel Tov!....y'all.... ;D
BBQ is neither verb or noun. It is an experience.
Fine Swine and Bovine BBQ Team - Home of squeal and veal!
Beer, Butter and Bacon make everything better.
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Offline Las Vegan Cajun

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Re: Brining Poultry
« Reply #13 on: November 09, 2014, 01:00:07 AM »
I like those Jack....but they are a little on the small side. I like a larger volume bag for more brine and complete immersion. May not be important, it is just how I like to do it.
Anyone know of larger "food safe" plastic bags? I have used the white kitchen size garbage bags, and think they are o.k. ( not the perfumed bags ) but would feel better with a purpose built one.

I just picked up a set of these brining bags from Williams-Sonoma.
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